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Bone Grafting

Bone grafts are used for facial or cranial reconstruction. Bone grafting is used to repair defects in bone caused by congenital disorders, traumatic injury, severe infection, death of the bone/jaw or surgery for tumors or cancer.

Tumors

Benign tumors, though not life-threatening, may grow rather large and require the need for major bone grafting. One particular type, called an ameloblastoma, often requires the removal of an entire section of the jaw.

Arising primarily from the soft tissues inside the mouth, malignant tumors almost always spread into the jaws, thus requiring the removal of a section of the jaw and major reconstructive grafting. Grafting in such cases may be more challenging because surgery for the treatment/removal of the cancerous tumor typically removes some of the surrounding soft tissue, as well.

Osteomyelitis

Involving a different type of infection than those associated with periodontal disease, osteomyelitis is a bacterial infection in the bone and bone marrow of the jaw. The resulting inflammation can lead to a reduction of blood supply to the bone. Treatment usually requires removal of the affected bone and antibiotic therapy. Once the infection is resolved, a graft replacement is usually required.

Osteoradionecrosis

Osteoradionecrosis is an injury that occurs when a high dose of radiation is given to treat mouth cancer, and some of the bone is killed in the process. To treat this condition, a portion of the jaw must be removed, and the bone that remains can be difficult to graft successfully due to compromised blood and tissue supply.

Developmental Deformities

A number of conditions, collectively referred to as syndromes, are characterized by defects at birth, such as missing portions of the teeth, facial bones, jaws or skull.


 

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